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A red brick university (or redbrick university) was originally one of the nine civic universities founded in the major industrial cities of England in the 19th century. But with the 1960s proliferation of universities and the reclassification of polytechnics in the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, all British universities founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in major cities are now sometimes so called. Six of the original redbrick institutions, or their predecessor institutes, gained university status before World War I and were initially established as civic science or engineering colleges. Eight of the nine original institutions are members of the Russell Group (which receives two-thirds of all research grant funding in the United Kingdom).